"As the diaphragm contracts, it increases the length and diameter of the chest cavity and thus expands the lungs. The intercostal muscles help move the rib cage and thus assist in breathing." - https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/lung-and-airway-disorders/biology-of-the-lungs-and-airways/control-of-breathing
Breathe in, or inhale, your diaphragm contracts and moves downward. This increases the space in your chest cavity, into which your lungs expand. The intercostal muscles between your ribs also help enlarge the chest cavity.
C. Elastic potential energy
In this case, as well as the example of the rubber, when we breath, the diaphragm is contracted so the elastic potential energy is starting accumulating there, that is why we could hold the air into our lungs. Consequently, when air is released such energy in converted into kinetic energy since it was previously formed and then released.
d) Surface tension from pleural fluid and negative pressure in the pleural cavity
Pleural cavity can be described as the space which is present in between the pleura. Pleura can be described as the two thin membranes surround the lungs. These pleural cavity is responsible for holding the lungs to the thorax wall. It aids the functioning of the lungs at the time of breathing. It acts as a lubricant at the time of respiratory movements. Hence, the correct option is d.
d. surface tension from pleural fluid and negative pressure in the pleural cavity
The thoracic cavity has three compartments: the mediastinum and two pleural cavities. The mediastinum is home to the heart, trachea, great vessels, and some other structures. The pleural cavities are on either side of the mediastinum and contain the lungs and the pleural linings.
it c elastic
Muscles in your chest and abdomen contract, or tighten, to create space in your lungs for air to flow in. The muscles then relax, causing the space in the chest to get smaller and squeeze the air back out.
Inspiration (breathing in).
The diaphragm contracts and moves downwards. The intercostal muscles contract and move the ribs upwards and outwards. This increases the size of the chest and decreases the air pressure inside it which sucks air into the lungs.