genetics is the study of how dna works, the methodologies defining the new recent technologies allow scientist to have a panoramic view of the entire dna landscape, especially how genomes interact with their environment, including off course, factors outside their organisms.
thus is very possible the existence of both scenarios, where populations of isolated individuals have different genetic traits, and share traits related to genetic mutation, due rats can easily travel overseas using human transport channels. so scientists could get a vast number of data, including human interaction, evolution of rodents, health development, spread of infections, development of new organisms, how genomes evolve in different environments and so on.
the intolerable acts were punitive laws passed by the british parliament in 1774 after the boston tea party. in great britain, these laws were referred to as the coercive acts.
b is correct
have a cool day
islamic religious leaders have traditionally been people who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation. however, in the modern contexts of muslims minorities in non-muslim countries as well as secularised muslim states like turkey, indonesia and bangladesh, religious leadership may take a variety of non-formal shapes.
compared to religious leaders/clerics of the other abrahamic faiths, islamic clergy are said to resemble rabbis and not priests. unlike catholic priests they do not "serve as intermediaries between mankind and god", have "process of ordination", or "sacramental functions", but instead serve as "exemplars, teachers, judges, and community leaders," providing religious rules to the pious on "even the most minor and private" matters.