What triumphs did the late 19th century witness in the realms of industrial growth, urbanization, and technological innovation? what challenges did these developments pose for urban dwellers, workers, and recent immigrants? how did city officials and everyday citizens respond to these challenges?
2--LBJ viewed Vietnam as part of the domino theory. If one country were to fall to communism then others would follow like dominoes. In an effort to maintain containment Vietnam needed to be stopped from becoming communists.
3--SDS was a liberal organization whereas YAF was a conservative organization. Both worked as a political outlet for each end of the political spectrum. The Counterculture represented Utopian communal living focused on starting over. Many of the ideas were liberal in social thinking but libertarian in political ideology.
4--Not a complete question, not sure how to answer.
5--Increasing involvement in Vietnam and a draft impacting much of the youth in America. Liberal legislation regarding civil rights were also put into place.
6--After 1968, women were focused on rights to privacy and rights to birth control. Prior to 1968, women were wanting schools and careers opened to them.
1. South Asia and the Mediterranean regions were among the first places where civilizations spurred. These civilizations started to develop on the basis of agriculture, as the production of enough food was the most important. Once this problem was solved, the people started to specialize and engage into other activities. One of the first activities was to trade goods with the surrounding people. As these civilizations had at disposal certain goods that were highly demanded, they used this in their advantage, and through the trade they managed to gradually get lot of wealth, and that wealth was invested in further development of their societies.
2. Because the people in these two regions managed to obtain wealth through trade, they were able to invest in their societies. This resulted in the formation of larger settlements, cities, which were made in a highly organized and aesthetic manner. As the people had lot of free time in these cities, they were able to engage into other activities, such as the sciences and philosophy. The people started to think about life, the universe, the nature, how and why the things happen. Gradually this had given rise to the first thinkers and philosophers, and as the alphabets were developed, they started to write down their thoughts, thus leaving them for the future generations.
C) Many families were able to own their home in the suburbs, leaving the inner cities to people unable to afford their own homes.
The fundamental characteristic of this century is that it is a period of great changes. Science and economics would be fed back, the term 'scientific', coined in 1833 by William Whewell, would be a fundamental part of the language of the time; the economy would suffer two strong industrial revolutions, the first occurred between 1750 and 1840, and the second between 1880 and 1914. In politics, the new ideas of the previous century would lay the foundations for bourgeois revolutions, revolutions that would expand the world through the imperialism and seek an alliance with the workers' movement to which, to avoid their triumph, they would cede universal suffrage; in philosophy, the principles of most contemporary currents of thought, such as absolute idealism, dialectical materialism, nihilism and nationalism, would arise; Art would take time to initiate the avant-garde process but would be cemented in movements such as Impressionism. At the end of this century came cinematography and animation thanks to the great technological advances of the time.
The migration suffered because of the industrial revolution caused great demographic and housing problems in the big cities. The great challenge was then, to be able to absorb that labor force and give it a good quality of life. With all these major changes, so-called class struggles and large social movements arose, which had as their objective to reclaim the ruling class for the minimum rights of the people.
The United States increased its efforts to construct nuclear weapons.
It was an arms race. The objective of the arms race was to invest in research and the creation of weapons. When the United States launched an armament, the Soviet Union responded with an even more powerful one. At a certain point in this race, both countries would match and realize that they could destroy each other, and the world as well.
We could trace the beginning of modern Japan to 1868, which is called the "Meiji Restoration." Before this date, Japan was de facto governed by local leaders called shogun. However, after this date, the emperor was restored to power. This began the period of the Empire of Japan.
During these years, the Meiji government was very interested in transforming the nation into a developed, Western state. It also wanted Japan to become an imperialist power. Japan became modernized, engaged internationally in trade relations, and developed its army. In order to fulfill its dream of expansion, it battled against many countries, such as Taiwan, China and Russia. These imperialist interests would ultimately lead them to join World War II.
Early 19th century: Japan is under a very strict isolationist policy. The country is basically locked down in order to protect the Tokugawa shogunate's supremacy. The Japanese culture is flourishing, but the technology is about the same as when Japan started its isolation, near 1600 (basically, katanas and muskets)
1866: American Admiral Matthew Perry asks the Shogun to reopen the country by entering Tokyo's harbour with heavy warships. Intimidated by the size of these ships (the Japanese must've felt like if the aliens from Independence day showed up and asked the president to "trade" with them). A year later, the Shogun ended the Japanese isolationism.
Late 19th century: The influence of International traders and visitors shakes the Japanese social structure. The Samurai class, namely, sees these reforms as a menace to their aristocratic power and privilege. Some of them believe that the Shogun is too keen on adopting the European's reform, and try to re-instate the Emperor, the religious leader of shinto, as the ruler of Japan. A few civil wars later, the Emperor is the new leader of Japan (Meiji Restoration). But the Japanese realizes that, if they wish to still be major players in this more interconnected world, they will need to get their military and technology up to date.
Even later 19th century: Japan basically absorb 200 years of technological progress in 30 years. Japan quickly adapts to the modern tactics and weapons, and starts building an empire by invading small Pacific Island and Korea. They later invade Manchuria, were they get in a struggle with Russia for the domination of the territory. A war broke out in 1904-1905, and Japans comes out victorious. This is very important, since it shows that Japan has the potential to rival a European power, which is surprising to the colonizing Europeans.
WW1: Japan profits from WW1 to invade and conquer some Pacific Island belonging to the Germans by joining the Entente. They join the League of Nation, truly defining them as an international player.
1930's: The Great Depression hits Japan's economy pretty hard. Japan decides to redress it's economy by strengthening their military and trying to build an empire spanning across the Pacific. They leave the League of Nation because of their War Mongering.
Pre-American WW2: Japan expands its territory by invading China and a lot of Pacific Islands. This War-Mongering starts to stress the American, which holds territories, protectorates and states under their influence in the regions (Guam, Hawaii, the Philippines...) decides to stop sending oil to Japan. Since the US sent almost 80% of Japan's oil, the Japanese war effort is effectively slowed down. In their militaristic thinking inherited by spending a lot of the last 80 years fighting, having a feudal leader as their head of state and being confident on their capacity of defeating an occidental nation, they try to intimidate the US by attacking the base of Pearl Harbour. This mesure did not only failed to intimidate the US, but encouraged them to break from isolationism and join WW2 to exact vengeance. So you could say Pearl Harbour's attack kinda backfired
TL;DR: Japan turned into a militaristic powerhouse in a very short amount of time while having a feudal leader. This turned them into a very war-like nation during the 20th century.
I'm sorry if my orthograph/syntax/english in general is not perfect, French is my native language.