They were passed by the southern states in order to keep most African Americans from voting and violated the equal voting right that was guaranteed by the Fifteenth Amendment.
C)deny suffrage to African Americans.
Even after the Fifteenth Amendment guaranteed voting rights to all Americans regardless of their race, most southern states created obstacles to deny suffrage to African Americans, a process also known as "disenfranchisement" or "disfranchisement." Examples of such obstacles were literacy tests, poll taxes, and the grandfather clause, which all put up barriers meant to prevent black people from exercising their legal rights.
C. Technically, you couldn't stop people from voting based on their race, but at the time, you could put restrictions on voting. Most white men were educated, and those who weren't could read basic, common words. Black men, historically couldn't read, so literacy tests were an attempt to make it so that black people couldn't vote. Poll taxes were the same way, the white men could afford to pay the poll tax, but the black men couldn't due to their mostly low paying jobs. Lastly, if a white man couldn't read, or couldn't afford to pay the tax, they shouldn't have been allowed to vote, so in order to make it so that they could vote a "grandfather clause" was instated. This made it so that if your father had voted, you could vote. This meant that any white man could vote.
Deny suffrage to African Americans.
Deny suffrage to African Americans
Hope this helps!