Why? - The answer is weather because it is a temporary thing, climate is the average weather in a certain area.
Why? - Weather includes changes in temperature for a specific time of year and just in general.
Why? - Based off of the typical weather conditions for that particular region, you should be able to tell how warm it will be based off the climate it normally is because climate is long-term. It could sort of be weather too because temperature differences, but I still believe it's more likely climate related.
Why? - Weather also has to do with humidity, therefore it is weather.
Why? - Weather includes precipitation and rain/thunderstorms are a form of precipitation, therefore the answer is weather.
Why? - Climate because if the region is normally a certain temperature, then the region is more likely to stay within that temperature range. Weather has to do with temperature, so it could also be weather.
Why? - Once again, just like statement 6, it could go either way. Temperature is involved with weather, but it could also be climate.
Why? - Clouds are a form of precipitation.
Why? - Weather extremes are included in Climate, therefore it's climate.
Why? - Humidity is a part of weather so it could be weather. Climate is also a part of this because the typical weather for Arizona/Texas is hot, dry, humid.
Why? - A sudden change (over a short period of time) is weather. Weather is very unpredictable and can change fairly quickly.
Why? - Weather because if the air pressure/wind suddenly dropped, that's weather because weather happens over a short period of time.
Why? - Rain/precipitation has to do with the weather. It can also be climate because this weather change didn't happen very quickly, it happened over the span of a year, so it could be climate because climate is long-term.
Why? - Climate deals with weather extremes. A tornado is a weather extreme, therefore it's climate.
Why? - Weather includes wind, therefore the answer is weather.
I hope this helps, I tried my best, I apologize if it's wrong. :)
So here are the answers.