Which of the following discoveries would be most likely to cause a scientific paradigm shift? a. the discovery of more rings around uranus b. the discovery of a new pathogenic virus transmitted by mosquitoes c. the discovery that a dormant volcano is showing signs of activity d. the discovery of a new species of salamander in the amazon rainforest e. the discovery that excess heat is radiating from the center of the earth and causing global climate change
2) Salmonella, Brucella, Legionella, etc.
an increased mutation rate in the virus's proteome in order to escape from the host preexisting immunity
The relationships between viruses and hosts may be considered as an evolutionary race where viruses and hosts develop evolutionary adaptative traits and counter-adaptations against each other, thereby resembling a race. In the case of viruses, mutations in their genomes enable them to generate new protein variants that are not recognized by the host immune system, thereby avoiding their inactivation.
Based on the scenario above, this is an example of a propagated epidemic. A propagated epidemic is an outbreak where the infection is being spread out by person to person when the infected individual is exposed or in contact with another person, making the person to be infected.
some of the example of bacterial diseases are syphills,pneumonia,tetanus,and tuberculosis.diseases cause by viruses are chickenpox,small pox,measles,polio.
Human cells do not have the chemical receptors required for attachment by feline immunodeficiency virus
Feline immunodeficiency virus is a virus which causes immunodeficiency in the cats worldwide that is they use the cat as a host to replicate themselves by using their DNA replication machinery.
The feline virus does not affect the humans or they cannot affect the humans and this could be accounted to the reason that human body does not have the receptors which allow the cell to surface interaction between the body and the virus. Since a virus does not get attached to the body, therefore, cannot affect the humans.
Thus, the selected option is correct.
The answer is D.
Viruses can evade the processing and presentation of antigens, for example by interfering with the expression of MHC class I proteins, although this increases their susceptibility to be detected by natural killer cells (NK). However, some members of the herpesvirus, papillomavirus, retrovirus, poxvirus and flavivirus families have also developed strategies to escape the attack of NK cells and promote their survival, inhibiting cell apoptosis. Finally, some pathogens often change surface antigens frequently, as in the case of influenza viruses (orthomyxovirus).
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affects CD4 + T cells and degrades the host's ability to counterattack with a strong cell-mediated immune response. There are so many tactics of immune evasion used by HIV, which have so far hindered the development of an effective vaccine.
The characteristic that makes viruses different than bacteria is viruses need to eat almost constantly in order to remain alive. The only function viruses need to do is to reproduce and in order to do it, they need to eat constantly. In contrast to it, bacteria do not need to eat constantly in order to survive. Viruses are not a full fledged cell. The only structures they have is a protein coat wrapped up around their genetic material i.e. their DNA/RNA. The protein coat around their genetic material is known as capsid.
Viruses aren't made out of cells.
Viruses need to eat almost constantly to remain alive.