The correct answer is option B which is Gelisols.Explanation:The Arctic contains the tundra soil. Tundra soil is the frozen soil beneath the snow and known as permafrost.Gelisols are the frozen ground, permafrost. Gelisols comes from the Latin word gelare which means to freeze.This terminology is used in USDA soil taxonomy for tundra soils.Hence the other soils do not belong to tundra soils hence only correct option is B.
The right choices areporosity mineral softness ease of dissolving Explanation:
Weathering is a natural phenomenon that breaks down and loosens the surface minerals of rock so they can be transferred away by water, wind and ice from one place to another. Usually weathering depends upon the physical characteristics of rocks. Soft rocks are affected the most because their inter molecular attractions is not so hard and they can be easily broken by water and ice so we can say that solubility also affects the weathering. The porosity is also a factor because more porous means more empty spaces and lose force of attractions.
Answer to Q2
The rate of soil formation depends uponwarmer temperatures very hard parent material Explanation:
There are five factors responsible for soil development. They are: Climate, organisms, parent material, topography and time. When parent rock material is exposed to the atmosphere or when organic matter is deposited on the earth's surface, soil formation begins. Time. Climate, Temperature and moisture influence the speed of chemical reactions therefore soils develop faster in warm, moist climates and slowest in cold or arid ones.Answer to Q3The right choices are dry climate cold climate Explanation:
Mechanical weathering is the process of breaking big rocks into little ones. This process usually happens near the surface of the planet. Weathering occurs fastest in hot, wet climates and occurs very slowly in hot and dry climate because without temperature changes, ice wedging cannot occur theretofore in very cold, dry areas, there is little weathering.Answer to Q4
Gelisols is the correct answerExplanation:
Gelisols came from the Latin word gelare which means to freeze. They are the soils that are permanently frozen. Gelisols are found in the Arctic and Antarctic, as well as at extremely high elevations. Gelisols are found chiefly in Siberia, Alaska and Canada and all of these areas lie in Arctic. So this is the correct option.Answer to Q5
The correct options areplant growth pressure release Explanation:
Mechanical weathering is the breaking down of rocks into smaller pieces without changing the composition of the minerals in the rock. Ice wedging, pressure release, plant root growth, and abrasion are the major causes of mechanical weathering. Repeated heating and cooling of some rock types can cause rocks to stress and break, resulting in weathering and erosion.Answer to Q6clay sand silt Explanation:
There are three categories for soil particles which are sand, silt and clay. These three groups are called soil separates. The three groups are divided by their particle size. Clay particles are the smallest, while sand particles are the largest particles found in soil. Slit is granular material of a size between sand and clay.Answer to Q7
The correct option is clayExplanation:
Clay is one of the basic component of soil. Soil contains nutrients that are required for various processes of plant growth. Of all the mineral nutrients, nitrogen contributes the most to plant growth and crop production. Plants require nitrogen to form proteins, nucleic acids, chlorophyll, and other important organic molecules. This nitrogen is provided to plants by clay.Answer to Q8
It undergoes the most changeExplanation:
Horizon B is also called Subsoil. It is mostly made of clay, iron minerals as well as organic matter, which has been washed down to this horizon by rainwater. This layer usually contain concentrations of clay minerals or of iron or aluminium oxides. Therefore this layer is more exposed to chemical reactions and undergoes most change because it is present between horizon A and horizon C.Answer to Q9
The correct option is TextureExplanation:
Texture is something related to shape. By definition texture is the feel, appearance, or consistency of a surface or a substance.The particles of soil have various sizes and shape. Some particles are round shaped and smooth edged while other are rough and tiny. The texture of soil is dependent upon the size of particles p[resent in the that sample of soil.Answer to Q10
Correct options areBedrock lies below the soil layers, Horizon O forms from organic material Horizon C is least affected by the soil formation process. Explanation;
Most soil profiles are composed of a series of horizons or layers of soil.
O horizon - fallen leaves and partially decomposed organic matter
A horizon - A surface mineral horizon, living organisms, and rock particles.
B horizon - A sub-surface horizon where depletion of organic matter and an accumulation of clay.
C horizon - A layer of partially altered bedrock