Reliability and validity reliability and validity are two important considerations that must be made with any type of data collection. reliability refers to the ability to consistently produce a given result. in the context of psychological research, this would mean that any instruments or tools used to collect data do so in consistent, reproducible ways. unfortunately, being consistent in measurement does not necessarily mean that you have measured something correctly. to illustrate this concept, consider a kitchen scale that would be used to measure the weight of cereal that you eat in the morning. if the scale is not properly calibrated, it may consistently under- or overestimate the amount of cereal that’s being measured. while the scale is highly reliable in producing consistent results (e. g., the same amount of cereal poured onto the scale produces the same reading each time), those results are incorrect. this is where validity comes into play. validity refers to the extent to which a given instrument or tool accurately measures what it’s supposed to measure. while any valid measure is by necessity reliable, the reverse is not necessarily true. researchers strive to use instruments that are both highly reliable and valid.
Explanation: Convergence has the basic meaning as when two or more unit of anything meet to converge or join. In the research , the different types of the tools are brought togather and skills and compare them.The measurement is done through the tools which has the already defined parameters.
Thus this concept is the example of the convergence because the tools are being converged and compared.so, the correct answer is option (B) and other option are incorrect because they have the technique of the contrasting and separation and reading respectively.
the correct answer is option A
the shown in the figure is known as micrometer screw gauge.
micrometer screw gauge is used fro measuring the thickness of the instruments, diameter of coins , length of the small material and many more.
micrometer screw gauge work with more precision because it can measure v small measurement
Precision is how detailed a measurement is.
7.033 has 3 digits after the decimal point
6.91 has 2 digits after the decimal point
7.1 has a single digit after the decimal point.
Since 7.033 has the most digits after the decimal point, it is more precise than the others.