the first one is the answer
The Open Door policy was a statement of principles initiated by the United States in 1899 and 1900. It called for protection of equal privileges for all countries trading with China and for the support of Chinese territorial and administrative integrity.
The Tenth Amendment of the United States Constitution is the section of the Bill of Rights that basically says that any power that is not given to the federal government is given to the people or the states. I hope this helps!
to gather light
In Latin, the word for a beggar was mendicus, and the word for begging was mendicant. So if you know a little Latin (which was the language of the church in the Middle Ages), then you already know that "mendicant" orders were religious groups that relied on begging for their daily needs. These groups had rejected the usual monastic lifestyle of a group of monks living in a monastery. Though the monasteries did not have lavish lifestyles, to the mendicant orders, the mere ownership of a monastery and its furnishings seemed like a step above poverty. They were devoted to living a Christian life in full poverty and devoting themselves to serving the needs of others. Thus for their own needs, they needed to beg in order to have food or other basic necessities.